If you want to take magnified photographs with a digital camera, you’re out of luck. Macro settings and lenses can only take you so far. For greater detail of very small objects, you’re going to need a digital microscope.
Ordinary optical microscopes are fairly expensive, and those with digital cameras are even moreso, but there’s a growing range of affordable USB microscope cameras aimed at hobbyists.
Celestron’s 44302 handheld digital USB microscope costs less than $50, and can take 1.3MP images at 10x to 40x and 150x. Veho also offers a digital microscope camera, the VMS004DELUXE, which offers similar functionality at a slightly higher pricepoint.
No, they won’t provide high quality images like these, but from what I’ve seen, their performance is decent, especially given their pricepoint.